SENSORY EVALUATION OF COFFEE

The sensory evaluation of food is a fundamental function of man: from his childhood and consciously or unconsciously, he accepts or rejects food according to the sensations he experiences when consuming it.
The sensations that motivate rejection or acceptance vary with time and the moment in which they are perceived; It depends on both the person and the environment in which he finds himself.
The Sensory Evaluation is about the standardized analysis of food that is carried out with the senses.
It is used in the quality control of certain food products, in the comparison of a new product that comes to the market or in food technology when it comes to evaluating a new product.
Sensory analysis or evaluation is a scientific discipline used to describe, measure, analyze and interpret those characteristics of coffees, which are perceived by the senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing). It is an integrated process of the body’s sensory system (brain and nervous system) to measure and evaluate product attributes.

Most companies use it as a key tool to:

• Quality control and insurance.

• The development of new products or brands.

• The improvement of existing products or brands.

• Classification and training of personnel.

• Market studies.

INTRODUCTION

SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF COFFEE

tasting and tasting

Sensory evaluation of coffee.

Green coffee evaluation

Graduation and classification of coffee

Quality requirements for the international market

Procedure to evaluate green coffee

Roasted coffee evaluation

Roasting process example

Procedure to evaluate roasted coffee

Assessment of coffee in the cup

quality in the cup

the tasting process

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SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF COFFEE

The sensory evaluation of food is a fundamental function of man: from his childhood and consciously or unconsciously, he accepts or rejects food according to the sensations he experiences when consuming it.
The sensations that motivate rejection or acceptance vary with time and the moment in which they are perceived; It depends on both the person and the environment in which he finds himself.
The Sensory Evaluation is about the standardized analysis of food that is carried out with the senses.
It is used in the quality control of certain food products, in the comparison of a new product that comes to the market or in food technology when it comes to evaluating a new product.
Sensory analysis or evaluation is a scientific discipline used to describe, measure, analyze and interpret those characteristics of coffees, which are perceived by the senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing). It is an integrated process of the body’s sensory system (brain and nervous system) to measure and evaluate product attributes.

Most companies use it as a key tool to:

• Quality control and insurance.

• The development of new products or brands.

• The improvement of existing products or brands.

• Classification and training of personnel.

• Market studies.

INTRODUCTION

SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF COFFEE

tasting and tasting

Sensory evaluation of coffee.

Green coffee evaluation

Graduation and classification of coffee

Quality requirements for the international market

Procedure to evaluate green coffee

Roasted coffee evaluation

Roasting process example

Procedure to evaluate roasted coffee

Assessment of coffee in the cup

quality in the cup

the tasting process

EVALUATION OF THE
ROASTING PROCESS OF ROASTED COFFEE SAMPLE

It is the thermal process to which green coffee is subjected for a certain time, causing a series of important physical and chemical changes in the bean, and where the compounds responsible for aroma and flavor develop. Depending on the level of roasting, the resulting coffee drink will be different from the physicochemical and organoleptic point of view. Between 700 and 850 possible constituent compounds of the coffee aroma are formed.

Stages in the roasting process

• Dehydration: Evaporation of water (125 – 187 ºC)
• Roasting: Physicochemical changes (200 – 220 °C)
• Cooling: Interruption of the roasting process with air Once the green sample has been evaluated, proceed roast it following previously defined protocols.In general, coffee is roasted based on the following parameters:
• Time
• Temperature
• Airflow control

Temperature

Control of roasting temperature is necessary to develop consistent and faithful processes from batch to batch.
The roasting equipment must have thermometers that facilitate the measurement of the temperature of the drum, the air and the mass of beans, otherwise it will depend a lot on the weather, appearance, smell and sound of the coffee.

Time

The other critical variable in the development of the roast is the measurement of the time that we must control, from the beginning of the process to the end.
To do this, a timer is used that will start its count when the coffee is introduced into the cylinder and will stop when it is empty.

Air flow

This allows us to control the amount of heat needed within the cylinder.
The application of these variables is called the roast profile of a coffee.
Each roaster develops roasting profiles according to the market to which it directs its product or to which it wants to take its customers.
But in general we can mention some of the most common profiles developed for certain types of coffee.
• For Strictly Hard (SHB) types: Roast these coffees at a high initial temperature and moderate heat in the final stage of the process.
Example: Kenya AA, Guatemala SHB.
• For Hard Types (HB): Start toasting with moderate heat and continue this way until the final stage of the process.
Examples: Mexico, Honduras or Sumatra.
• For low coffees (Soft Bean): They must be roasted at low temperatures throughout the process.
Example: Brazil, Caribbean Islands or Hawaii Kona.

Basic Roast Types
• Light Roast: At this point the acidity dominates while the body and complexity of the flavor have not fully developed.
• Medium Roast (Medium): At this point the grain develops its best attributes of aroma, acidity, body, residual flavor and complexity. In general, it is at this point that the balance of aroma and flavor attributes is obtained.
• Dark Roast (Dark): The color of the bean is dark and has a bitter taste and the oily and astringent flavors become more evident.
• Slow Toast (in the oven): It is achieved by toasting at lower temperatures for a longer time.
The concept of slow roasting varies depending on the equipment used and the operator’s conception of the slow process.
Cualquier tueste que tarde 20 minutos o más en lograr un color Agtron 45 se llamaría “lento”.
Algunos fabricantes deliberadamente tuestan “lentamente”, a menudo hasta 45 minutos o más. Procesos que resultan en disminución de acidez y cuerpo, disminuye el amargor, en general el sabor es plano.
• Fast Roasting (rápido): Se logra tostando a mayor temperatura por menor tiempo. Cualquier tueste que tarde 6 minutos o menos en lograr un color Agtron 45 se llama rápido. Procesos de torrefacción que resultan en acidez no uniforme, cuerpo áspero/arenoso, con notas de amargor. En general, se acentúa la intensidad sensorial (sabores punzantes).
Notable diferencia de color entre la superficie y el interior del grano.

Los parámetros a evaluar en el café tostado son: 

• General appearance of the coffee: refers to the visual impression of the sample. At this stage, the uniformity of the color, the texture of the surface of the grain and the presence of “Quakers” grains are mainly evaluated with the naked eye.

Roasted appearance 

Uniform 

Unequal 

very uneven

Corrugated 

Smooth

In addition to color, in roasted coffee the amount of immature beans (Quakers) that are present in 100 grams of the sample is evaluated.
Quaker: Green, undeveloped, immature coffee bean, obtained from the harvest of immature fruits, which is not roasted well, presenting a yellowish coloration when roasted.
Smell: Refers to the olfactory impression of roasted beans.
Two categories are defined:
Clean smell . The smell of the roast must be fresh, fragrant and with notes of its origin or level of roast, free of foreign odors.
Strange smell . Any odor that comes from poor storage, process defects or contamination.

Roasted coffee color scale
Basic classification

• Color: It is valued according to the tonality of the sample. This color is related to the roasting level developed.
For quality analysis, the sample should be roasted to a medium level (Agtron 55 whole bean).
Roast coffee colorations are measured by hue using names or numbers. These numbers are based on scales given by a colorimeter. The most used terms or numbers are:

Light Roast
Medium
Roast Dark Roast

Agtron 75: Tan
Agtron 65: American
Agtron 55: Medium or City
Agtron 45: Full City
Agtron 35: Dark

Procedure to evaluate roasted coffee
• 100 grams of roasted coffee are weighed.
• This sample is spread on a smooth, flat and clean surface, preferably dark in color (black or blue).
• Separate all “Quaker” beans found in the sample.

• All “Quakers” found must be counted.
• This total should be recorded on the evaluation form used.
• Appearance, odor, and color data must be included on the evaluation sheet.

New York Green Coffee Association requirements. (GCA)
Valid for generic coffee contracts (Contract C).
REQUIREMENT FOR ROASTED COFFEE
COLOR Uniform.
ODOR Free of foreign odors.
ROAST Zero (0) Quakers.
SAMPLING Based on 100 grams of sample.

Requirements of the Specialty Coffee Association of America.
(SCAA) Valid for specialty coffee contracts.
REQUIREMENTS FOR ROASTED COFFEE
COLOR Uniform.Agtron 55 (medium roast)
ODOR free of foreign odors
ROASTED Special grade: zero (0) Quakers
Q Coffee: maximum three (3) Quakers
SAMPLING Based on 100 gram sample.
ROASTING TIME Between 8 and 12 minutes

Ideal color of suction cup for SCAA between 55 and 65

Ideal Toasts 58

Ideal Grind 63

In order to have an adequate flavor profile for evaluation in the cup, the samples must be roasted between 8 and 12 minutes at a medium roast level, which corresponds to the 55 Agtron color in whole beans, since at this level we have the maximum expression of the flavor of coffee origin.

 

QUALITY REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

Because it is an aromatic drink, whose main attraction is flavor, all coffee is tasted before being industrialized.
No roaster will use a coffee that has not been previously tasted.
Regardless of the grade, quality level, or description a producer attributes to a given batch, the roaster will at some point determine whether or not the coffee meets their standards.
The roaster usually buys the green coffee to roast, so you won’t risk buying coffee of dubious quality.

Trading companies and importers, on the other hand, buy it to resell it, so they are more willing to accept the risk that some shipments do not meet certain requirements and have to be diverted to different customers.
The presentation of coffee for export consists of the combination of its classification (preparation) and its quality (cup).
This preference varies from market to market and roaster to roaster.
All roasters demand a coffee presentation that meets their needs and consistent, reliable quality.

Requirements
The requirements can be divided into two basic components that are:
• Classification (appearance, color, smell, size of the green and roasted beans)
• Quality (aroma and flavor)

Classification
The coffee is classified according to its appearance, color, smell, size and density to obtain a final product that is as uniform as possible.
Coffee that has not been sorted is called unsorted or unsorted coffee.
This is the product in its natural state. Therefore, ungraded coffee should not be confused with coffee classified as low quality, a term that refers to coffee of inferior quality.
The uniformity of the green beans is important because it is difficult to roast them when they have large beans together with small, light or broken beans.
Small beans are often over-roasted, as they require less roasting than larger ones.
Very small fragments of broken grains can even burn.
The classification also addresses the need to present a

 uniform product to the consumer who buys coffee beans instead of roasted and ground.
It is necessary for the producer to understand the preferences regarding the classification and the demands of the market to which the product is directed.
The parameters to be evaluated in green coffee are:
General appearance of the coffee : Refers to the visual impression of the sample. In this stage, the uniformity of the color, the size and shape of the grains and the presence of imperfections are evaluated with the naked eye.

Appearance in green:
Uniform   
Uneven     
Very uneven    Clean    Dirty

Smell : Refers to the olfactory impression of the green beans. Two categories are defined:
• Clean smell.
Green coffee is expected to have a fresh, dry, well-processed coffee smell; free of strange odors due to poor storage, process defects or contamination.
• Strange smell.
Any odor that comes from poor storage, process defects or contamination.
Color : It is valued according to the

 tonality that the sample presents.
This color is related to the type of process (washed, semi-washed or natural), the drying method and the storage conditions and time.
The most common colorations found in green (golden) coffee are:

Green Brown Color Scale

Teal Teal Teal Green Green Yellowish Green Pale Yellowish Yellowish Brown

Size and shape : A well graded coffee, with a uniform size, will produce a better roast development than that obtained from ungraded batches containing beans of different sizes. Perforated sieves of different diameters are used to check grain size, placed in decreasing order from number 20 to 13 or 12 (measured in 1/64 inch) and then closed bottom for the smallest grain.
100 grams of the sample are deposited on the upper sieve and the grains are moved back and forth for 30 seconds, until the sample is dispersed among all the other sieves. If the coffee is uniform, most of the beans will be retained at the top.16 upwards, if there are a lot of beans below the 16 sieve, they may cause problems in the roasting process. It may be that the coffee to be roasted is generally small with grains below sieve 16, if so they should not pass 10% below sieve 13. If
the batch to be roasted is snail type coffee,
it must be uniform without containing more than 10% below screen 9 (oblong hole).
The notation to describe the size of a grain with this system is “Zn”, where “n” is a multiple of 1/64 of an inch. Thus, a Z18 grain is one that is retained in the blade with 18/64-inch holes and therefore measures 7.14 mm.
Types of sieves:
Round holes for flat-convex grains Oblong holes for snail grains Z18 Z13 Z15 PB
Moisture content : The ideal moisture level in green coffee for export should be between 10% and 12%.
This measurement must be exact, since the moisture content of the beans is decisive for maintaining the quality of the product and for a good development of the roast.
During the roasting process, the beans absorb heat, releasing free water in the form of vapor (surface water) and then the compositional water contained in the solid matter that will be affected first, by the amount of heat from the roasting equipment and second . , by the percentage of moisture in the seed. Below is a list of how heat and moisture in the beans affect the roasting process: • Low temperature and high moisture
in the bean= Slow roast, baked bread flavor, low acidity, watery body, flat flavor. Low temperature and low humidity of the bean = Fast roasting, the bean is roasted more on the top than on the inside, inconsistent flavors, low acidity and body, rough texture of the beans, with metallic flavors.

High temperature and high humidity of the bean = Rapid roasting, the bean is roasted more on the top than on the inside, inconsistent flavors, moderate acidity and body, spongy texture of the beans, with burnt or bitter flavors.
High temperature and low humidity of the beans = Aggressive roasting, the beans tend to burn quickly, inconsistent flavors, sharp acidity and sandy body, fragile texture of the beans, with burnt or bitter flavors.

Devices that accurately, reliably, and consistently measure moisture content must be used in this evaluation.

Different equipment to measure moisture content.

Number of imperfections : Refers to the number of defective beans present in a coffee sample.
These grains are classified according to the damage they present and are grouped in certain quantities following standards defined by the national or international market. These amounts by type of defects or groups of defective beans are called complete imperfections and are assigned a value or equivalence depending on the incidence they have in the physical appearance or in the cup. Within each batch of coffee a certain type and number of complete blemishes are allowed, depending on the preparation stipulated in the contract.
• European Preparation: 5 to 8 complete defects.
• American Preparation: maximum 23 complete imperfections.
• Special Preparation: Maximum 5 complete secondary imperfections. These imperfections are classified as:
Primary : They affect the physical appearance and crown.
Secondary : They affect the physical appearance.

Procedure to evaluate green coffee
• A sample of 350 grams should be weighed. • The sample is spread out on a smooth, flat, clean surface of a solid color, preferably black or dark blue.
• All defective beans are separated.
• Then they are grouped by defect type according to the equivalence table used.
• They are recorded in the analysis sheet according to the type of defect and the quantity of grains found.
• The total of complete imperfections is counted.
• Data are included on: appearance, color, odor, size, and moisture content.

There are different defect classification systems.
Each producing or importing country, including each company, whether seller or buyer, can establish its own standards, but there are two world classification systems on which the others are based, these are: • The Green Arabica Coffee Association coffee classification system of New York-GCA.
• Green Arabica coffee classification system of the Specialty Coffee Association of America – SCAA.

New York Green Coffee Association requirements. (ACG)

Valid for generic coffee contracts (Contract C)
COLOR Uniform green
ODOR Free of foreign odors
HUMIDITY 9% to 13%
SIZE 50% minimum on the sieve 15.
5% maximum under the sieve 14
IMPERFECTIONS Up to 23. Up to 8 imperfections there are none penalty, from 9 to 23 for each imperfection there is a penalty of 0.01 cents.
SAMPLING Based on 36 cubic inches or 350 grams of sample.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF GREEN COFFEE 

GCA SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF COFFEE

 

Number of Kernels Primary Defect Equivalence to Complete Blemishes
1 Black Bean 1
1 Sour Bean 1
1 Dried Cherry 1
1 Foreign Matter 1
3 Small Sticks and Stones 1
1 Medium Stick and Stone Stick 2
1 Large Stick or Stone Secondary 3

Defect conversion table for generic coffee.
Number of beans Defect Partially  equivalent to complete Imperfections
2 to 5  black beans 1
2 to 5 1
hulls 1
floating 1
split or cut 1
immature 1
2 to 3  hulls 1
2 to 3  parchments 1

 Requirements of the Specialty Coffee Association of America. (SCAA) Valid for specialty coffee contracts.

REQUIREMENTS FOR GREEN COFFEE
COLOR Uniform green
ODOR Free of foreign odors  
MOISTURE Washed coffee 10% to 12% Natural coffee 10% to 13%
SIZE No more than 5% variance from contract specifications, as measured by retention in the traditional round hole screens.
IMPERFECTIONS No more than 5 complete secondary defects. Primary defects are not allowed.
SAMPLING Green coffee: 350 grams of sample.
PHYSICAL

Defect conversion table for specialty coffees. SCAA
Number of Beans  Primary Defect Equivalence to Complete Blemishes

Black Bean 1
Sour Bean 1
Dry Cherry 1
Moldy Bean 1
Severe Brocade 1
Beans Foreign Matter 1
Number of Kernels 
Secondary Defect Equivalency to Complete
Blemishes 3 Beans
Partially Black 1
Partially Bitter Beans 1
Shells 1
Floats 1
Broken/Cut/Bitten 1
Immature 1
Shelled 1
Parchment 1
Damaged  or Wrinkled 1
10 
Brocade Beans Smooth 1

The general appearance, color, smell, size and number of imperfections are indicative of the quality of the beverage.
They are our letter of introduction, this first impression can open or close the doors in the commercialization of the product.

EVALUATION OF COFFEE IN THE CUP

SENSORY EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF THE COFFEE IN THE CUP
The quality in the cup is the second component of the presentation of the exported product. It must be reliable and stable, appropriate to the source. This is determined by the botanical, geographical, climatic and edaphic conditions, it is also influenced by crop management, the type of process, storage, transport, the type of roasting and the final preparation for the consumer.
Producers should know that tastes vary from one country to another, so it is important to know the characteristics of the product and guide it to the corresponding market.
For example, it does not make sense to offer coffee with excellent acidity and aroma to markets where coffee is typically heavily roasted until it becomes very dark and therefore evaporates most of these aspects of the brew.
To get an idea of the trends in the consumer market, Pierre Massia in his work “The Passion for Coffee” states the following regarding the preference for coffee in Europe:

» Finns appreciate acidity, so they want a light roast coffee.
Belgians and Germans like a slight touch of bitterness, they will prefer a roast called “monk’s dress” (light-medium). The French and Northern Italians want a balanced coffee with a continental (medium) roast, while the Neapolitans and Spanish like their coffee bitter with an almost charred dark roast. »

Upon purchase, the roaster requires the producer to ensure not only that each batch contains healthy, clean coffee, but also that the quality is consistent, similar to previous shipments. A consistent producer that meets these requirements has an advantage over competitors that do not. These requirements apply to coffee of any origin, regardless of whether the batch is washed Arabica from Latin America or Natural from Africa.

Assessing coffee quality

When we roast, grind and brew coffee to the same standards, it looks quite similar from one sample to another, however they have different flavors, depending on the country of origin, the altitude of the crop, the type of soil and weather conditions. Coffees vary from region to region and from year to year. To analyze the differences in flavor, the industry uses a process called tasting or “coffee cupping” in English. Cupping is a standardized process for evaluating the aroma, flavor, and texture of a coffee sample. This process takes place at various points:
• In the producing country before export.
• With the importer before and after the negotiation.
• With the roaster to verify the quality of the business and launch new products.
• With the distributor.
• With the consumer to find out their preferences.

In each place, responsible personnel are needed in the evaluation of the product who, through many years of experience and tasting many samples, build a sensory memory of the different flavors and smells with their respective common vocabulary.
Through tasting, a taster can determine if the quality of the coffee meets the needs of the buyer or if it complies with what was agreed in the sales contract. In addition, the tasting reveals the distinctive characteristics of each coffee, identifying those that are of exceptional quality and those that have a generic quality for blends. The cupper usually observes the consistency and similarity in the coffee samples.
For consistency tests, the cupper evaluates three to four cups per sample.If any cup presents differences, the test can be repeated to verify the total quality of the batch or lot. In the tasting to find similarities, the samples are tested by comparing them with a previously defined reference or pattern established as a standard for certain characteristics; This is used when you want to substitute some coffee in a blend and you need to maintain the same flavor characteristics of the product.

Accurately judging the quality of coffee takes a lot of practice. No machine or laboratory process has been able to replace the sensitivity developed by the coffee taster.
To carry out a complete evaluation of the coffee, the cuppers focus on three relevant aspects: aroma, flavor and texture.

Scent

A través del sentido del olfato, el catador identifica cada característica distintiva en los componentes del olor del café. Durante la respiración normal, el aire no llega a los receptores olfativos ubicados dentro de la membrana nasal, por lo que el catador debe inhalar profundamente y sorber vigorosamente para permitir que se introduzca la mayor cantidad de aire en el área olfativa. Esta evaluación olfativa abarca las siguientes fases:
• Aroma seco: Es la fragancia de los granos recién molidos.
• Aroma húmedo: Se refiere a los vapores que se desprenden al contacto con el agua.
• Aroma retrogusto: Se refiere a los vapores sueltos en la boca al saborear.
• Sabor residual: Son los vapores y residuos que quedan en el paladar después de haber degustado.

Sabor

Se refiere al sabor en combinación con el aroma y está compuesto por los elementos del café tostado y molido disueltos en agua que han sido extraídos durante el proceso de preparación de la bebida; Estos componentes incluyen minerales, aceites y ácidos que se encuentran comúnmente en vegetales, frutas y semillas secas. Estos componentes junto con las sensaciones gustativas básicas: ácido, dulce, salado y amargo, forman el sabor del café. Es necesario que el catador desarrolle agudeza en la identificación y descripción del sabor de la bebida, tanto en sus componentes positivos como negativos.

Textura

Conocida como sensación en la boca o sensación táctil y se refiere a la viscosidad y el contenido de grasa (conocidos colectivamente como cuerpo). El catador determina la textura examinando la sensación de los componentes que quedan suspendidos en la bebida después de preparada la infusión.

El proceso de cata

La cata consta básicamente de los siguientes pasos:
• Se colocan en la taza 8,25 gramos de café tostado por cada 150 ml de agua. El café debe ser molido justo antes de la cata.
• Se aspiran los gases sueltos de la muestra recién molida, este es el aroma seco o fragancia.
• Dentro de cada taza se coloca agua caliente a una temperatura de 92 °C. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DEL CAFÉ 26
• Inmediatamente después de colocar el agua, se aspiran los vapores desprendidos por la muestra en combinación con el agua, este es el aroma húmedo.
• Luego se deja reposar la infusión de tres a cinco minutos para permitir la extracción y dilución adecuadas. Se forma una capa o costra en la superficie de la taza.
• Se rompe la capa o corteza con una cuchara redonda, inhalando profundamente los vapores que salen de la taza para medir el carácter aromático que varía para cada tipo de café. Las partículas de café se hundirán hasta el fondo de la taza.
• Toda la escoria y las partículas de la superficie se limpian y eliminan.
• Después de ocho minutos se coloca una cucharada de la bebida cerca de la boca y se inhala. El sorteo atrae el vapor hacia la cavidad nasal y distribuye el líquido uniformemente sobre toda la lengua.
• La bebida debe ser retenida en la boca de tres a cinco segundos para percibir la intensidad y calidad de las características gustativas: sabor, acidez, dulzura, limpieza y equilibrio.
• Luego se expulsa la bebida transcurrido este tiempo, dentro de un recipiente diseñado para ello, evaluando la sensación que queda en la boca después de la degustación para determinar el sabor residual.
• Deslice suavemente la lengua por el paladar para determinar la textura, el contenido de grasa y la intensidad.
• Además, se debe determinar si existen defectos en el sabor del café.
• La evaluación del sabor debe realizarse en tres etapas: caliente, templada y fría, con el fin de evaluar la consistencia y uniformidad de la bebida.

The aroma profile
The total aroma profile of coffee is made up of three parts:
• Fragrance: the gases from freshly ground coffee.
• Smell: the vapors of freshly brewed coffee.
• Residual taste: the vapors that remain after ingesting the coffee.

AROMA

The sense of smell, like the sense of taste, is a chemical sense. They are called chemical senses because they detect chemical compounds in the environment, with the difference that the sense of smell works at much longer distances than the sense of taste. Our sense of smell is 10,000 times more sensitive than any other of our senses and that the recognition of the smell is immediate; the average person can identify 2,000 to 4,000 different scents, but they get saturated quickly. Odor is an intrinsic property of matter and is defined as the sensation resulting from the reception of a stimulus by the olfactory sensory system. The term “odour” refers to a complex mixture of gases, vapors and dust.What lacks odor is called odorless. The term fragrance or aroma is mainly used to characterize coffee odors. There are also bad odors that can be annoying and cause rejection, since they affect the quality of the product. Olfactory sensations are difficult to describe and classify. However, Classifications have been made by observing the chemical elements associated with the odors of the substances. Research on smell indicates that substances with similar odors have molecules of the same type. Depending on their origin, the aromatic components can be divided into three groups:

Enzymatic Group
This group contains aromatic compounds that are the result of enzymatic reactions that occur in the coffee bean while it is a living organism. Composed mainly of esters and aldehydes, which is the most volatile and most frequent group in the dry aroma of freshly ground coffee. This group can be separated into three basic categories: flowers, fruits, and herbs.

Caramelized Sugar Group
This group contains the aromatic compounds that are the result of the caramelization of sugars, a reaction that occurs during the roasting process. This set is also divided into three basic categories: nutty, caramel, and chocolate. This group is moderately volatile and is found both in the aroma of a freshly brewed cup of coffee and in the vapors of the ingested coffee beverage.
The presence of these caramelized sugars is completely dependent on the roasting process. Because aldehydes and ketones generally develop first, in light roasts it will have a pronounced nutty character.As the roasting process continues, the sugar molecules further condense into a brown mass known as caramel, which contains heterocyclic sulfur compounds and alcohols. Therefore, the medium roast tends to have a caramel character. Higher heat further reduces the caramel in pyrazine compounds, so darker roasts can have a chocolatey character. Higher heat beyond this point burns off the caramelized sugars, so this group isn’t the hallmark set of dark roasts.

Dry Distillation Group
Aromatic compounds that result from the dry distillation reaction (burning) of the grain fiber. This group, formed mainly by heterocyclic compounds, nitriles and hydrocarbons, is the least volatile and is most frequently found in the vapors (flavor) of freshly brewed coffee. The group is made up of three basic categories: resinous (turpentine), pungent, and carbonaceous. 
When we taste coffee, we evaluate the aromatic character of each part in particular. When analyzing the aroma profile, which is the key to accurately representing the overall flavor of a coffee, descriptive terms must be used for each of these parts. 

TASTE (TASTE)

Flavor is the sensory evaluation of the water soluble matter extracted from the coffee beans during the brewing process. This matter is made up of organic and inorganic chemicals. Organic matter in coffee can be described simply as a variety of sugars, vegetable oils, and fruit acids, commonly found in most vegetables, fruits, and nuts, with taste sensations ranging from slightly sweet to very bitter. Coffee also contains organic compounds known as alkaloids (mainly caffeine) and esters (mainly chlorogenic acid), which impart a bitter taste sensation. Inorganic matter can be described as mineral salts (mainly mineral oxides, particularly potassium), which impart a salt-like taste sensation, ranging from sweet to astringent or soapy to metallic, depending on concentration.The basic primary taste sensations are: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. The bittering function only serves to modify or enhance the impression of the other three, except for low altitude, low quality, or dark roast coffees, where bitterness becomes the dominant flavor. Taste modulation is the process by which the perception of a basic flavor is altered by the relative strength of one or more of the other flavors. For example, adding salt to lemon juice increases the remarkable smoothness of the juice.

When we taste coffee, we evaluate the aromatic character of each part in particular. When analyzing the aroma profile, which is the key to accurately representing the overall flavor of a coffee, descriptive terms must be used for each of these parts. 

four basic tastes

As a general rule, the tongue can detect four basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour and bitter.

Sweet

Characterized by solutions of sugars, alcohols, glycols and some acids. It is perceived mainly by the fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue.

Salty
Characterized by solutions of chlorides, bromides, iodides, nitrates and sulfates. Perceived by the fungiform and foliate papillae on the anterior lateral part of the tongue.

Acid
Characterized by solutions of citric, tartaric and malic acid. Perceived by the foliate and fungiform papillae on the posterior sides of the tongue.

Bitter

Characterized by solutions of quinine, caffeine and other alkaloids. It is mainly perceived by the circumvallar papillae at the back of the tongue. The taste sensation of coffee combines these four basic flavors. Three of them (sweet, salty, and sour) tend to dominate the overall sense of taste, especially since the compounds that create them are present in greater amounts. Although the term bitter is popularly used to describe off-flavors, bitterness is a primary taste sensation in coffee, similar to the effects of tannins in red wines or hops in beer. Using the term bitter as an exclusively negative attribute is technically incorrect. The interaction of bitterness with other flavors contributes to give dimension and depth to the drink.This bitter note will be accentuated or diminished in relation to the botanical origin, type of process, 

The taste characteristics that are evaluated are:
• Taste: Combination of aromas that are perceived when ingesting the drink and the taste sensation of the basic flavors.
• Acidity: Natural characteristic of coffee determined by the concentrations of organic acids present in the drink and that give it life and shine.
• Sweetness: This sensation is directly related to the state of maturity of the harvested coffee, depending on the amount of carbohydrates present in the grain and the level of caramelization during the roasting process.

THE TACTILE FEEL (TEXTURE)

In the sensory evaluation of coffee, the viscosity of the beverage and the excess fat, perceived between the tongue and the palate, are collectively known as body. The viscosity or thickness in relation to water, is a function of the amount of solid matter suspended in the coffee drink and the amount of sugars. The solid material is primarily made up of microscopic grain fiber particles that are not filtered out during the brewing process. Excess fat or fat content is a function of the amount of lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) in the coffee. These compounds are present in the green bean and are extracted, once roasted and ground, during the process of making the drink.These oils remain undissolved, separating from the rest of the liquid, forming an oily residue on the surface of the drink.
• Coffee with a very low fat content and with the presence of hard or non-brittle bean fiber is described as watery or watery, with low viscosity.
• Coffee with a moderate fat content and some grain fiber that has been broken down during the grinding process is described as smooth or light.
• The terms creamy or heavy should refer to a coffee with a relatively high fat content mixed with some fraction of grain fiber.
• The terms buttery or thick are appropriate adjectives for coffees with a very high fat content and a high percentage of fibrous material, with a lot of viscosity.In addition to viscosity and fat content, this tactile sensation does not help to perceive temperature changes in the drink that affect our ability to perceive in the following way: • The higher the temperature, the lower the perception of sweetness
.
• The perception of salinity decreases at higher temperatures.
• Temperature does not affect the perception of acidity. 

Complementary evaluations
The set of characteristics of olfactory, taste and tactile sensations determine other evaluations that complement the evaluation and the total flavor profile of a coffee. These complementary evaluations are:

Balance or Equilibrium: Refers to the harmony of all aspects of Flavor, Aftertaste, Acidity and Body of the sample, working together and complementing or contrasting each other. If the sample is missing certain aroma or flavor attributes or if some attributes are highlighted or diminished, the Balance count would be reduced.

Cleaning: This is the basic point of quality coffee. Cleanliness is the absence of defects and contamination. It is the transparency necessary for a coffee of origin to shine. Any defective flavor or aroma will disqualify the cup. Uniformity. It refers to the consistency of the flavor in the cups, that is, it is expected that all the cups of the same sample are perceived to be of similar quality. If they taste different, the rating for this aspect would not be high.

Taster’s note or general impression : It is the summary of the entire evaluation.
A coffee that meets expectations in terms of its character and the particular flavor qualities of its origin would receive a high score.

Defects: They are the negative or bad flavors that lower the quality of the coffee. The defects in the cup that can appear are:
• Earthy: The flavor of humid earth predominates in the cup, product of fruits attacked by fungal diseases, excess humidity or poor storage of the dry grain.
• Moldy : This defect appears especially when coffee is stored with a high percentage of humidity (greater than 12%). In addition, it occurs a lot in very humid places and with high temperatures, special conditions for the development of fungi.
• Phenolic: Medicinal taste, it is a heavy and pronounced defect, therefore, it is heavily punished. It is caused by fruits that fall to the ground due to the wind or rain and get hurt;by staying in the ground for some time they are attacked by fungi. Other causes may be nuts that have remained on the coffee tree.

• Overfermented: It is one of the most punished defects, caused by a delay in pulping or by not washing the coffee at its correct fermentation point or by piling up freshly washed coffee, sometimes due to lack of installed capacity in patios or dryers. It may also be because the recirculated water is not used correctly. The tactile characteristic that is evaluated is:

• Body: which includes the viscosity, weight and texture of the drink in the mouth.

The flavor profile of coffee.
To determine this flavor profile, a previously determined numerical scale and a defined descriptive vocabulary are used. This profile is composed of the following characteristics:

• Fragrance/aroma, flavor , aftertaste or aftertaste, acidity, body, sweetness, balance, uniformity, cleanliness, overall impression, and defects.

New York Green Coffee Association requirements. (GCA) Valid for generic coffee contracts (Contract C). 

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR
GREEN CUP OF COFFEE: COFFEE IS HEALTHY IN A CUP
(FREE OF DEFECTS OR CONTAMINATIONS)
RESULT: CLEAN CUP: ACCEPTED
DEFECTIVE CUP: REJECTED
SAMPLING: 6 CUPS FROM THE SAMPLE

Requirements of the Specialty Coffee Association of America. (SCAA) Valid for specialty coffee contracts.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GREEN COFFEE
Cup of 80 points or more in Scaa format Free of defects or contamination
It must show some distinctive attribute in one or more of the following characteristics: flavor, acidity, body, aroma. Less than

final score

80: below special quality

80-84.99: special

85-89.99: special origin

90-100: rare specialty

Sampling of 5 sam cups

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Pacamara, Huila, Bruselas, 1670 msnm

$60.000 $55.000

¿Cuál es la variedad Pacamara?

La variedad Pacamara es la creación del Instituto Salvadoreño para Investigaciones del Café en 1958, resultado de un cruce de las variedades Pacas y Maragogipe.

What is the Pacamara variety?

The Pacamara variety is the creation of the Salvadoran Institute for Coffee Research in 1958, the result of a cross between the Pacas and Maragogipe varieties. 

Bourbon Rosado, Huila, Bruselas, 1670 msnm

$60.000 $55.000

¿Cuál es la variedad de bourbon? ¿Debe llamarse bourbon rosado o simplemente Rosado?

WCR describe la variedad Bourbon como una planta alta, de rendimiento medio con hojas de color verde en las extremidades, que tiene el potencial de producir un café de buena calidad a gran altitud. Es una mutación natural de la planta Arábica, la cual ha crecido de forma silvestre en Etiopía durante muchos siglos.RD2VISION afirma que parece que vamos a llamar a este varietal, Rosado, y no Bourbon como el varietal Rosado viene directamente de Etiopía y no tiene herramientas genéticas de cualquier Bourbon). Pink todavía tiene algunos complejos sensoriales muy interesantes. ==> Según Christophe Montagnon (PARIS-FRANCE-RD2 VISIÓN / Laboratorio Genético, Director) 

What is the bourbon variety? Should it be called  Bourbon Rosado or simply Rosado?

WCR describes the Bourbon variety as a high and medium yielding plant with green leaves that has the potential to produce good quality coffee at high altitudes. It is a natural mutation of the Arabica plant, which has grown wild in Ethiopia for many centuries.RD2VISION states that it seems that we will call this varietal, Rosado, and not Bourbon as the varietal Rosado comes directly from Ethiopia and has no genetic tools of any Bourbon). Pink still has some very interesting sensory complexes. ==> According to Christophe Montagnon (PARIS-FRANCE-RD2 VISION / Genetic Laboratory, Director)

Ombligon amarillo, Huila, 1670 msnm

$58.000 $55.000
This coffee has been cultivated in Huila at El Viso neighbour farm. Processed and shipped by Fredy Cordoba.The coffee was carefully roasted and packed and soon into your cup.We hope you will enjoy enough to send us a little feedback.The Coffee T+ank Team.Please read description below.

Bourbon Rosado, Huila, El Viso, 1475msnm

$60.000 $55.000

¿Cuál es la variedad de bourbon? ¿Debe llamarse bourbon rosado o simplemente Rosado?

WCR describe la variedad Bourbon como una planta alta, de rendimiento medio con hojas de color verde en las extremidades, que tiene el potencial de producir un café de buena calidad a gran altitud. Es una mutación natural de la planta Arábica, la cual ha crecido de forma silvestre en Etiopía durante muchos siglos.RD2VISION afirma que parece que vamos a llamar a este varietal, Rosado, y no Bourbon como el varietal Rosado viene directamente de Etiopía y no tiene herramientas genéticas de cualquier Bourbon). Pink todavía tiene algunos complejos sensoriales muy interesantes. ==> Según Christophe Montagnon (PARIS-FRANCE-RD2 VISIÓN / Laboratorio Genético, Director) 

What is the bourbon variety? Should it be called  Bourbon Rosado or simply Rosado?

WCR describes the Bourbon variety as a high and medium yielding plant with green leaves that has the potential to produce good quality coffee at high altitudes. It is a natural mutation of the Arabica plant, which has grown wild in Ethiopia for many centuries.RD2VISION states that it seems that we will call this varietal, Rosado, and not Bourbon as the varietal Rosado comes directly from Ethiopia and has no genetic tools of any Bourbon). Pink still has some very interesting sensory complexes. ==> According to Christophe Montagnon (PARIS-FRANCE-RD2 VISION / Genetic Laboratory, Director)

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